earth in the space

The Science Behind Earthing: Connecting with the Earth's Healing Energy

Earthing, also known as grounding, has captured the attention of the wellness and health community as a fascinating subject. This practice involves individuals making direct physical contact with the Earth's surface charge, achieved through activities like barefoot walking or using grounding systems like grounding or earthing sheets, mats or grounding pads for beds, patches, and footwear.

Advocates of earthing propose that it generates various physiological benefits by reestablishing the connection between humans and the Earth's natural energy.

To comprehensively examine the potential health effects of earthing, we delve into an in-depth analysis of multiple research studies conducted on this intriguing subject. Each study provides valuable insights into how earthing impacts various aspects of health and may serve as a complementary approach to overall well-being.

We present the findings of each study, summarize their methods, and assess the strength of evidence to gain a better understanding of the potential benefits of earthing.

This scientific exploration investigates several dimensions of health, including blood pressure, inflammation, sleep quality, stress reduction, and cardiovascular health. By scrutinizing each study, we aim to offer a clearer understanding of the science behind earthing and its potential contributions to human health. As we journey through these studies, we assess the evidence and consider the relevance of earthing in supporting specific health conditions.

Join us in this enlightening exploration of the science behind earthing, grounding sheets science and its potential impact on human health. Through a detailed examination of each study's methods, results, and strength of evidence, we aim to shed light on the promising realm of earthing as a complementary practice to enhance overall well-being.

 

woman in barefoot on the rock

 

What We Know to Date

To comprehensively examine the potential health effects of earthing, we delve into an in-depth analysis of multiple research studies conducted on this intriguing subject.

Each study provides valuable insights into how earthing impacts various aspects of health and may serve as a complementary approach to overall well-being.

We present the findings of each study, summarize their methods, and assess the strength of evidence to gain a better understanding of the potential benefits of earthing.

This scientific exploration investigates several dimensions of health, including blood pressure, inflammation, sleep quality, stress reduction, and cardiovascular health.

By scrutinizing each study, we aim to offer a clearer understanding of the science behind earthing and its potential contributions to human health.

As we journey through these studies, we assess the evidence and consider the relevance of earthing in supporting specific health conditions.

Join us in this enlightening exploration of the science behind earthing and its potential impact on human health. Through a detailed examination of each study's methods, results, and strength of evidence, we aim to shed light on the promising realm of earthing as a complementary practice to enhance overall well-being.

 

Laura Koniver, 2023

 

man and woman laughing

 

Title: Practical Applications of Grounding to Support Health

MethodologyThis article serves as a comprehensive review of existing research and studies conducted over the past several decades on the practice of grounding, also known as direct physical contact with the Earth. The review synthesizes findings from various medical studies that explore the effects of grounding on the human body and its potential healing properties.

Through a thorough examination of published research, the article aims to shed light on the benefits of grounding and its impact on human physiology.

ResultsThe review highlights an ever-expanding body of research suggesting that grounding has the potential to put the body into a healing state. By becoming a part of the Earth's global electrical circuit through direct contact, the human body may enter a profound healing state.

The Earth's direct current (DC) energy, which continuously flows across the planet, interacts with the highly conductive human body, potentially enhancing its natural ability to function and promoting overall well-being.

Conclusion:  As research on grounding continues to deepen our understanding of its health benefits, it can be used as an intentional healing tool in clinical medicine. The review points to grounding's potential role in improving various organ systems, including the nervous, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems.

All of these utilize DC energy and conductivity for their proper functioning. Further research in this area may lead to tailored grounding recommendations for specific health issues and a better understanding of the relationship between the body's conductivity and the Earth's global electrical circuit.

Conditions Supported:

  • Overall health and well-being
  • Disease prevention and healing

 

Jamieson et al., 2023

 

woman in barefoot

 

Title: Biological Grounding: A Comprehensive Review of Methods, Findings, and Implications for Health and Well-being

Methodology: The researchers utilized a systematic literature review approach to gather and analyze pertinent studies concerning biological grounding and its potential health advantages. They searched various databases and reputable sources for research related to walking barefoot, reflexology walking, cobblestone mat walking, and other grounding techniques.

The methodology encompassed case studies, prospective randomized trials, and investigations on blood viscosity, cortisol levels, sleep quality, pain reduction, and inflammation. Additionally, the team addressed technical issues linked to grounding equipment and electromagnetic hygiene.

Results: The study presents a comprehensive overview of the findings from various research studies on biological grounding. It highlights the positive effects of grounding on different health aspects, including pain reduction, improved blood circulation, sleep quality, and cortisol profiles.

Several studies demonstrated that biological grounding can enhance recovery after exercise and reduce inflammation markers. Case studies provided evidence of improved blood circulation and reduced inflammation in individuals who practiced biological grounding.

The study also discusses the impact of electromagnetic pollution and technical factors on grounding effectiveness.

Conclusion: The study concludes that biological grounding shows promise as a significant advance in the treatment of various health conditions. It emphasizes the importance of optimizing environmental conditions, including electromagnetic hygiene, to maximize the benefits of grounding.

The study also calls for more rigorous research, especially randomized double-blind placebo-control intervention-based studies, to validate the efficacy of biological grounding and its potential combined effects with other health measures.

Conditions Supported:

  • Pain relief
  • Improved blood circulation
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Inflammation reduction
  • Enhanced recovery after exercise

 

Park et al., 2022

 

rat at the sink

 

Title: The Effect of Earthing Mat on Stress-Induced Anxiety-like Behavior and Neuroendocrine Changes in the Rat

Methodology: In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: a normal group, a group subjected to 21 days of stress without the earthing mat (Control), a group exposed to 21 days of stress and used the earthing mat for 7 days (A7), and a group exposed to 21 days of stress and used the earthing mat for 21 days (A21). To assess stress-related behaviors, researchers conducted tests like the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and elevated plus maze (EPM). The expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the brain was analyzed using immunohistochemistry.

Results: In the elevated plus maze test, the rats in the A7 and A21 groups spent significantly more time in the open arm, indicating reduced anxiety compared to the Control group (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed among the groups in the FST and TST.

The earthing mat group showed a marked decrease in the expression of CRF immunoreactive neurons compared to the Control group.

Strength of Study: The strength of this study is considered STRONG due to the randomized group assignments and the use of multiple tests to assess stress-related behaviors. However, the study can still be improved with a larger sample size and additional behavioral measures.

Conclusion: The earthing mat showed promise in reducing stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors in rats and had an impact on specific brain areas related to stress responses. This suggests that the earthing mat may act as a calming tool and improve stress-related responses in the rats.

However, more research with larger groups and human subjects is necessary to fully explore the potential benefits of earthing mats in reducing stress and anxiety.

Conditions supported: 

  • Stress reduction

 

Sinatra et al., 2022

 

man with inflamed arm

 

Title: Grounding – The Universal Anti-Inflammatory Remedy

Methodology: This paper presents a comprehensive review of the concept of grounding or earthing, which involves direct contact with the Earth's natural electric charge (electrons). The research explores the potential physiological benefits of grounding, including reduced inflammation, improved blood flow, and decreased blood viscosity.

Various studies on grounding's impact on different health conditions are discussed, including its potential role in managing chronic inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and its possible effects on COVID-19 patients.

Results: Grounding has shown promising results in reducing inflammation, pain, and stress, improving sleep, and enhancing wound healing in various clinical studies. It may help lower blood pressure, improve heart rate variability, and reduce blood viscosity.

The research suggests that grounding contributes to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the body through the transfer of electrons from the Earth.

Conclusion: Grounding or earthing appears to be a simple yet effective method for reducing chronic inflammation and supporting overall health and well-being. Reconnecting with the Earth's natural electric charge may improve cardiovascular health, enhance wound healing, and potentially play a role in managing diabetes and inflammatory diseases.

However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms and potential of grounding as a therapeutic intervention.

Conditions Supported:

  • Chronic inflammatory diseases
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • Diabetes
  • COVID-19 (prevention and potential therapeutic intervention)

 

Chevalier, 2022

 

woman meditating

 

Title: The Effects of Grounding on Meditation Quality: Preliminary Study Report—A Case Series

Methodology: The study involved 10 longtime meditators who practiced meditation indoors while grounded. Brain mapping with EEG electrodes was used to measure brain function during both grounding and non-grounding periods of the meditation sessions.

Participants meditated in a special conductive recliner chair, with grounding achieved through conductive cords and hand patches connected to the building's grounding system.

Results: Meditating indoors while grounded led to deeper meditation experiences, as objectively and subjectively reported by the participants. Brain mapping revealed increased Alpha and Theta activity in the frontal lobes, indicative of enhanced emotional control, top-down regulation, internal focus, spiritual awareness, and meditation.

Strength of Study: WEAK. The study was a preliminary case series, providing valuable insights into the potential benefits of grounding during meditation. However, its small sample size and lack of a control group limit the generalizability of the findings.

More extensive research with larger sample sizes and control groups is required to validate and understand these effects conclusively.

Conclusion: Grounding during meditation may offer additional benefits beyond the practice itself, as evidenced by deeper meditation experiences and changes in brain activity patterns. The study highlights the potential positive impact of grounding on the quality of medication and suggests the need for further research in this area.

Conditions Supported:

  • Meditation quality
  • Brain function during meditation
  • Emotional control
  • Internal focus
  • Spiritual awareness
  • Meditation-related brain disorders

 

Lin et al., 2022

 

woman sleeping on the blue beddings

 

Title: Grounding the Body Improves Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Pilot Study

Methodology: This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of grounding on sleep quality, anxiety, and depression in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-two patients with mild AD were enrolled, and the electrochemical signals at acupoints KI1 and GV16 were measured using the electrochemical analyzer CHI 1205b.

The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to assess sleep quality, anxiety, and depression, respectively, at weeks 0 and 12.

Results: Of the 22 patients initially enrolled, 15 completed the 12-week intervention and survey. The results showed that grounding significantly improved sleep quality as measured by the PSQI scores compared to the sham-grounding group (mean ± SD: 0.3 ± 0.7 vs. 3.0 ± 1.9, p = 0.006).

However, there were no significant improvements in anxiety and depression scores between the grounding and sham-grounding groups based on the BAI and BDI-II assessments.

Strength of Study: Moderate. This pilot study provides valuable preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of grounding in improving sleep quality for patients with mild AD. However, the small sample size and the lack of significant improvements in anxiety and depression limit the overall strength of the study.

More extensive research with larger sample sizes and a control group is needed to further validate these findings.

Conclusion: Grounding shows promise as a non-pharmacological therapy for improving sleep quality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. The study suggests that grounding can be a beneficial intervention for addressing sleep disturbances in this patient population.

However, the impact on anxiety and depression requires further investigation with larger-scale studies to confirm its effectiveness in those areas.

Conditions Supported:

  • Sleep quality improvement in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

 

Madvin et al., 2021

 

man touching his face

 

Title: Localized Grounding Combined with Conductive Skincare: Enhancing Traditional Skincare Outcomes

Methodology: The study aimed to explore the effects of localized grounding combined with conductive skincare on blood flow regulation in the facial region. A total of 30 subjects participated in the experiment.

Half of the participants were randomly assigned to the grounded group, while the other half constituted the ungrounded group (control). Grounding was achieved by connecting the grounded group to the Earth's electrical charges through conductive patches on their palms and feet.

All subjects underwent facial blood flow measurements before and after the intervention using non-invasive techniques.

Results: The results demonstrated a significant improvement in blood flow regulation in the facial region of the grounded group compared to the ungrounded group. Subjects in the grounded group showed a noticeable increase in blood flow, suggesting enhanced skin tissue repair and improved skin appearance.

Collateral sprouting and nerve sensitization were also reduced in the grounded group, indicating potential benefits for overall skin health.

Strength of Study: The study can be considered MODERATE in strength. It utilized a randomized controlled design, which helps reduce bias and increase internal validity. However, the sample size was relatively small, which may limit the generalizability of the findings.

Additionally, blinding participants and researchers was not possible due to the nature of the intervention, potentially introducing bias.

Conclusion: Localized grounding combined with conductive skincare appears to have a positive impact on blood flow regulation in the facial region. The results suggest potential benefits for skin tissue repair, appearance, and overall health.

Further research with larger sample sizes and additional controls is needed to confirm and expand upon these preliminary findings.

Conditions Supported:

  • Skin health and integrity
  • Blood flow regulation
  • Skin tissue repair
  • Skin appearance improvement

 

Menigoz et al., 2020

Title: Integrative and Lifestyle Medicine Strategies Should Include Earthing (Grounding): Review of Research Evidence and Clinical Observations

Methodology: The paper reviews existing research evidence and clinical observations related to Earthing (grounding) to explore its effects on physiology and health.

Results: Earthing, which involves direct contact with the Earth's natural electric charge, has been found to stabilize physiology at deep levels, reduce inflammation, pain, and stress, improve blood flow, energy, and sleep, and promote overall well-being. The effects of Earthing are profound and systemic, and often manifest rapidly.

Conclusion: Given the compelling research evidence and numerous anecdotal reports, the paper advocates for the inclusion of Earthing in clinical practices of preventive, alternative, and lifestyle medicine. By integrating Earthing, healthcare approaches can potentially become more effective in enhancing overall health and well-being.

Conditions supported: 

  • Inflammation reduction
  • Pain reduction
  • Stress reduction
  • Improved blood flow
  • Enhanced energy levels
  • Better sleep quality
  • Overall well-being and health improvement

 

Elkin et al., 2018

 

doctor checking blood preassure of the patient

 

Title: Grounding Patients With Hypertension Improves Blood Pressure: A Case History Series Study

Methodology: Hypertensive patients from a single physician cardiology practice participated in the study. They were instructed to ground themselves at home for at least 10 hours daily for several months. Baseline BP measurements were taken in the clinic, followed by measurements at approximately monthly intervals after starting grounding. Additionally, patients were provided with a BP monitor and asked to measure their BP on specific days and times for 12 weeks.

Results: By the end of the trial period, all 10 patient measurements showed significant improvement, with some experiencing improvements before the study's conclusion. Individually, systolic levels decreased by 8.6% to 22.7%, with an average decrease of 14.3%.

Conclusion: This study represents the first known investigation into the influence of grounding on hypertension. The results suggest that grounding may be a safe therapy for reducing blood pressure, warranting further research in this area.

Strength of Study: The strength of this study is considered WEAK due to the small sample size of only 10 patients and the absence of a control group. Researchers would typically consider a study with such limitations to be of weaker evidence.

As such, further research with larger sample sizes and controlled experimental designs is needed to validate the potential benefits of grounding as an effective therapy for hypertension.

Relevant Conditions Supported:

  • Blood pressure

 

Chevalier et al., 2018

 

doctor checking man's inflamed back

 

Title: The Effects of Grounding (Earthing) on Bodyworkers' Pain and Overall Quality of Life: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Methodology: The study utilized a 6-week double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) with a stepped wedge cluster design, involving sixteen massage therapists with a mean age of 42.8 years. The therapists were randomly assigned to one of two cohorts.

During the initial week, therapists were not grounded, followed by four weeks of grounding while working on clients and sleeping at home. The final week of the study involved being ungrounded. The study took place at The Chopra Center for Well-Being in Carlsbad, California, USA.

Participants completed standardized questionnaires before, during, and immediately after the intervention. The questionnaires covered various aspects, including pain, physical function, anxiety, depression, fatigue/tiredness, sleep disturbance and duration, the number of clients worked on per working day, energy levels, emotional and mental stress.

Results: As a group, massage therapists experienced significant improvements in physical function and energy levels while grounded compared to being ungrounded. Additionally, grounding significantly decreased fatigue, depressed mood, tiredness, and pain. These benefits were observed during the intervention period and were still present one month after the study.

Strength of Study: The strength of this study is considered MODERATE. Although a randomized controlled trial design was employed, adding credibility to the findings, the small sample size of sixteen participants may limit the generalizability of the results.

Additionally, the study focused on a specific cohort of massage therapists, potentially restricting its applicability to other populations. However, the double-blind design and consistent findings across various relevant domains for massage therapists enhance the study's credibility, indicating promising benefits of grounding on pain and overall quality of life.

To establish more robust evidence, further research with larger and more diverse populations would be beneficial.

Conclusion: The study found consistent beneficial effects of grounding on pain, physical function, and mood—domains highly relevant to massage therapists. These findings, along with previous results from the same trial indicating improvements in inflammatory biomarkers, blood viscosity, and heart rate variability (HRV), suggest that grounding can positively impact multiple aspects of massage therapists' lives, contributing to overall health and quality of life. The study supports the potential of grounding as a beneficial intervention for body workers, providing significant benefits for their well-being and work-related health issues.

Conditions Supported:

  • Pain (specifically in massage therapists)
  • Physical function (in massage therapists)
  • Mood improvement, including decreased depressed mood and fatigue (in massage therapists)
  • Energy enhancement (in massage therapists)

 

Passi et al., 2017

 

baby wearing a diaper

 

Title: Electrical Grounding Enhances Vagal Tone in Preterm Infants

Methodology: The study aimed to investigate the effects of electrical grounding on vagal tone (VT) in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Researchers measured environmental magnetic flux density (MFD) in and around incubators to assess the electric field strengths in the NICU environment.

To achieve electrical grounding (EG), they utilized a patch electrode and wire connected to a ground outlet. They measured skin potential and heart rate variability (HRV) in 26 infants before, during, and after grounding to determine the impact of EG on VT.

Results: The background MFD in the NICU was found to be below 0.5 mG, but it significantly increased to a range between 1.5 and 12.7 mG in the closed incubator. All infants showed a 60-Hz oscillating potential recorded on their skin. With EG, the skin voltage dropped by approximately 95%.

Pre-grounding VT was inversely correlated with the skin potential, indicating a relationship between the two. Following EG, VT increased by 67%, indicating an improvement in autonomic balance. However, after the grounding period, VT returned to the pre-grounding level.

Strength of the Study: MODERATE. The study's strength lies in its controlled design and the use of objective measurements to assess the effects of electrical grounding on vagal tone in preterm infants. The researchers employed environmental magnetic flux density (MFD) measurements to evaluate the electric field strengths in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, providing valuable insights into the electrical exposure of the infants.

Additionally, the study utilized heart rate variability (HRV) to assess vagal tone, which is a reliable indicator of autonomic balance.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates that electrical grounding positively impacts vagal tone in preterm infants in the NICU. Connecting the infants to electrical ground resulted in a significant reduction in skin potential and an improvement in VT.

This suggests that electrical grounding may enhance the infants' resilience to stress and potentially reduce the risk of neonatal morbidity, particularly necrotizing enterocolitis. Further research is needed to explore the long-term effects of electrical grounding on preterm infants' health and well-being.

Conditions Supported: 

  • Preterm Infants' Vagal Tone
  • Neonatal Morbidity

 

Brown et al., 2015

 

woman exercising

 

Title: Grounding Reduces Muscle Damage after Eccentric Contractions: A Follow-up Study

Methodology: In this follow-up study, the researchers aimed to investigate the effects of grounding after moderate eccentric contractions on pain, creatine kinase (CK) levels, and complete blood counts. Thirty-two healthy young men were randomly divided into two groups: the grounded group (n=16) and the sham-grounded group (n=16).

On day 1, all participants performed 200 half-knee bends of eccentric contractions. The grounded group received a 4-hour earth connection on days 1 and 2, while the sham-grounded group did not undergo grounding.

Results: Both groups experienced pain in the days following the eccentric contractions. However, on day 2, the sham-grounded group showed a significant increase in CK levels (P<0.01), while the grounded group did not experience a significant increase.

The between-group difference was also significant (P=0.04). The grounded group exhibited an increase in neutrophils on day 3 (P=0.05) compared to the sham-grounded group. Additionally, the grounded group had a significant increase in platelets on days 2 through 4.

Strength of Study: MODERATE. The study utilized a randomized controlled trial design with two groups, which adds credibility to the findings. However, the sample size of thirty-two participants may be considered relatively small, limiting the generalizability of the results.

Nevertheless, the study's significant findings regarding reduced muscle damage in the grounded group provide valuable insights and support the need for further investigation.

Conclusion: Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions led to reduced muscle damage, as indicated by the decreased CK levels in the grounded group compared to the sham-grounded group. The changes in CK and complete blood counts observed in the grounded group suggest potential benefits of grounding in mitigating muscle damage and warrant further investigation into the effects of earthing on delayed onset muscle damage.

Conditions Supported:

  • Muscle damage after moderate eccentric contractions
  • Mitigating delayed onset muscle damage

 

Chevalier etal., 2015

 

smiling man

 

Title: The Effect of Grounding the Human Body on Mood

Methodology: The study involved 40 adult participants who either received grounding or sham-grounding (no grounding) for 1 hour while relaxing in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a conductive grounding pillow, mat, and patches connecting them to the ground. The researchers conducted the study as a pilot project and double-blinded it to minimize biases.

They used the Brief Mood Introspection Scale, comprising 4 mood scales, to assess mood changes.

Results: The findings indicate that grounding had a statistically significant positive impact on pleasant and positive moods among the participants, surpassing the benefits of relaxation alone for the grounded group. In contrast, the sham-grounded participants did not experience similar mood improvements.

The 1-hour contact with the Earth appeared to have a positive effect on mood beyond what could be attributed to relaxation alone.

Strength of Study: The study's strength is considered MODERATE due to the sample size of 40 participants and the presence of a control group. As a pilot project, the study provides preliminary insights into the effects of grounding on mood.

However, the limited sample size and lack of a larger control group may limit the generalizability of the results. Further, more extensive studies with larger and diverse populations are needed to establish a more robust association between grounding and mood improvement.

Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that grounding the human body for 1 hour may lead to improved mood, indicating its potential to be a valuable intervention for mood enhancement beyond the benefits of relaxation alone. The positive impact on mood warrants further investigation in more extensive studies to better understand the therapeutic potential of grounding in enhancing mood.

Conditions Supported: 

  • Mood enhancement

 

Oschman et al., 2015 

Title: The Effects of Grounding (Earthing) on Inflammation, Immune Response, Wound Healing, and Chronic Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases

Methodology: The study adopts a multi-disciplinary research approach, exploring the physiological and health effects of electrically conductive contact between the human body and the Earth's surface (grounding or earthing). The researchers investigated the impact of grounding on inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Results: Grounding the human body yields measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. The study identified alterations in pain levels, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and various chemical factors related to inflammation under grounded conditions.

Strength of Study: The strength of this study is considered MODERATE. While it explores multiple aspects of inflammation and immune responses affected by grounding, the study's reliance on animal models and a limited focus on specific injury conditions may restrict its overall generalizability.

More extensive investigations with human subjects and diverse inflammatory conditions are necessary to strengthen the evidence further.

Conclusion: The study presents a novel perspective on the potential benefits of grounding or earthing for addressing inflammation, immune response, wound healing, and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The observed effects on various physiological markers and cellular activities provide promising insights into the role of grounding as a potential adjunctive therapy for certain health conditions.

Conditions Supported:

  • Inflammation
  • Immune response
  • Wound healing
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases
  • Autoimmune diseases

 

Chevalier et al., 2015

 

graphics of a red blood cells flowing

 

Title: One-Hour Contact with the Earth’s Surface (Grounding) Improves Inflammation and Blood Flow—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Pilot Study

Methodology: In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, we aimed to investigate the effects of one-hour grounding on inflammation and blood flow in middle-aged volunteers. We divided forty participants into two groups: a grounded group and a sham-grounded group, ensuring both participants and researchers remained unaware of the group assignments.

Volunteers sat in comfortable recliner chairs equipped with a grounding mat, earthing pillowcase, and patche. The grounding systems are either connected to the ground port of a power outlet for the grounded group or set up with a sham connection for the sham-grounded group.

Throughout the grounding session, we used infrared imaging cameras to measure changes in blood flow and temperature.

Results: The thermal imaging results demonstrated that the grounded group experienced significantly improved circulation of fluids, including blood, throughout the torso. This enhancement in fluid circulation led to increased blood delivery to the head and improved blood flow in the face.

Our data showed that one-hour contact with the Earth's surface (grounding) facilitated autonomic nervous system control of body fluids and peripheral blood flow. These improvements suggested the potential for enhanced blood circulation in the torso and face, promoting facial tissue repair, improved skin health, and vitality, and optimized facial appearance.

Notably, the anterior view of the face showed a significant improvement (p = 0.002), as did the lateral views of the face (p = 0.017) and the full anterior torso view (p = 0.002).

Strength of Study: The strength of this study is MODERATE. Our randomized, double-blind design and use of a control group enhanced the study's validity.

The application of infrared imaging provided objective and measurable data, contributing to the reliability of our results. However, the pilot study's relatively small sample size limited the generalizability of the findings.

Moreover, the study's short duration, with only one-hour grounding sessions, may not fully capture the potential long-term effects. Nevertheless, the positive outcomes observed in this pilot study lay a promising foundation for further investigations.

Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that one-hour contact with the Earth’s surface (grounding) significantly improves autonomic nervous system control of body fluids and peripheral blood flow. The resulting enhanced blood circulation in the torso and face may lead to improved facial tissue repair, skin health, vitality, and overall facial appearance.

Additional research involving larger comparison groups and longer-term follow-up (longitudinal study) is essential to validate and build upon these preliminary findings.

Conditions Supported:

  • Inflammation and blood flow
  • Delivery of blood to the head and face
  • Facial tissue repair
  • Skin health and vitality
  • Facial appearance

 

Teli et al., 2015

 

person on barefoot on the grassfield

 

Title: Immediate Effect of Direct Barefoot Contact with Earth on Prehypertension: An Experimental Study

Methodology: The study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of direct barefoot contact with the earth on prehypertension. Researchers screened 150 participants and selected 53 prehypertensive individuals for the study.

The participants were randomly assigned to either the study group (n=28) or the control group (n=25). The study group remained barefoot, in contact with the ground, for one hour, while the control group did not have ground contact.

Blood pressure measurements were recorded before and after the one hour for comparison. Data analysis involved the use of paired and unpaired 't' tests with a significance level set at P < 0.005.

Results: Participants in the study group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < 0.0014), and mean blood pressure (MBP) (P < 0.0001) after one hour of direct barefoot contact with the earth. Conversely, no significant changes were observed in the control group.

Strength of Study: The study's strength can be considered MODERATE. The researchers utilized random assignment to the study and control groups, enhancing the reliability of the findings. Additionally, the use of paired and unpaired 't' tests allowed for a robust analysis of the data.

However, the sample size was relatively small, limiting the generalizability of the results. Furthermore, the study only evaluated the immediate effects of barefoot contact, and longer-term effects were not explored.

Despite these limitations, the study provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of direct barefoot contact with the earth.

Conclusion: Direct barefoot contact with the earth resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure among prehypertensive individuals. This simple and non-invasive approach may offer a cost-effective and innovative method to prevent hypertension.

Further research with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods is warranted to validate and expand upon these preliminary findings.

Conditions Supported: 

  • Systolic blood pressure (SBP) 
  • Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 
  • Mean blood pressure (MBP) 
  • Hypertension prevention through direct barefoot contact with the earth

 

Chevalier et al., 2013

 

woman meditating at the park

 

Title: Earthing (Grounding) Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

Methodology: In this study, ten healthy adult subjects participated, and researchers grounded them with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. The patches were connected to a stainless-steel grounding rod or grounding spike  inserted into the earth outdoors.

Fingertip pinprick blood samples were collected and subjected to an electric field to determine the electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells (RBCs). Terminal velocities of the cells were measured through video recordings taken under a microscope, and RBC aggregation was quantified by counting clustered cells in each sample.

Results: The results demonstrated that grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation, indicating a decrease in blood viscosity and clumping due to grounding.

Strength of Study: This study's strength is considered WEAK due to the small sample size of ten subjects and the lack of a control group. Although the research provides valuable insights into the effects of grounding on blood viscosity and clumping, these limitations may affect the generalizability and establish a direct causal relationship between grounding and cardiovascular risk reduction.

Larger, controlled studies with diverse populations are necessary to strengthen the evidence further and confirm the observed effects.

Conclusion: The study adds to the growing body of research suggesting that grounding could be a potential intervention for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The findings indicate that grounding effectively increases the surface charge on RBCs, thus decreasing blood viscosity and clumping.

However, further research is warranted to build upon these initial findings and validate grounding as a safe and effective approach for improving cardiovascular health.

Conditions Supported: 

  • Cardiovascular risk factors

 

Sokal et al., 2013

 

woman riding a bicycle

 

Title: Earthed vs. Unearthed: Effects on Blood Urea and Creatinine Concentrations during Cycling Exercise and Recovery

Methodology: This study utilized a double-blind, crossover design to assess selected biochemical parameters in subjects undergoing cycling exercise and recovery while earthed. A total of 42 participants were randomly divided into two groups, and each group underwent earthed sessions during exercise and relaxation.

One group experienced earthed conditions during the first week, while the second group had earthed sessions during the second week. Blood samples were collected before each training session, after 15 and 30 minutes of exercise, and after 40 minutes of recovery to measure blood urea and creatinine concentrations.

Strength of Study: The strength of this study can be considered MODERATE. The use of a double-blind, crossover design enhances the validity of the results and helps reduce bias.

The sample size of 42 participants is reasonable for this type of study. However, the study's limited focus on blood urea and creatinine concentrations during exercise and recovery restricts its scope. Further research with a more comprehensive analysis and a larger sample size would strengthen the findings.

Strength of Study: This study's strength lies in its double-blind, crossover design, which ensures robust data and minimizes potential biases. The use of a reasonably large sample size (42 participants) adds to the study's reliability.

However, the study's focus on specific biochemical parameters and limited scope may benefit from broader investigations with a larger and more diverse sample.

Conclusion: Earthing during exercise was associated with reduced blood urea concentrations, suggesting potential inhibition of hepatic protein catabolism or increased renal urea excretion. The findings indicate that exertion under earthing conditions may lead to a positive protein balance.

Further research is warranted to fully elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanisms and explore the potential benefits of earthing during physical exercise.

Conditions Supported:

  • Hepatic protein catabolism
  • Renal urea excretion
  • Protein balance during exercise under earthing conditions

 

Chevalier et al., 2012

 

old woman on the ground

 

Title: Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

Methodology: This paper provides a review and commentary on existing research related to the health implications of grounding or earthing the human body to the Earth's surface electrons. The discussion incorporates insights from various studies that explore the physiological changes and potential benefits of direct contact with the Earth.

Results: The research suggests that grounding or earthing the body may have significant positive effects on various health aspects. Improved sleep, reduced pain, and enhanced overall well-being are among the observed benefits. The study proposes that direct contact with the Earth's surface electrons allows for physiological changes, contributing to these positive outcomes.

Conclusion: The review and commentary suggest that grounding or earthing the human body to the Earth's surface electrons could be a simple, natural, and effective environmental strategy to combat chronic stress, autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, inflammation, pain, poor sleep, disturbed heart rate variability (HRV), hypercoagulable blood, and other common health disorders, including cardiovascular disease.

While further empirical research is needed to solidify the mechanisms and potential clinical applications, the existing evidence points to the Earth as a "global treatment table" with untapped health resources. Integrating earthing practices into comprehensive health approaches may offer a promising pathway to promoting well-being and longevity.

Conditions Supported: 

The conditions supported by earthing or grounding practices, as indicated in the reviewed research, include:

  • Improved sleep
  • Reduced pain
  • Stress reduction
  • Inflammation reduction
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Autoimmune conditions such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis 

 

Chevalier, 2010

 

child lying on the grassfield

 

Title: Immediate Effects of 40-Minute Grounding on Human Subjects: A Double-Blind Study

Methodology: Researchers aimed to investigate how grounding immediately affects various physiologic parameters in human subjects. They conducted a double-blind experiment involving 14 men and 14 women, aged between 18 and 80, who were in relatively good health.

The subjects were comfortably seated in recliners, and researchers measured their physiologic parameters during 2-hour grounding sessions, with each grounding period lasting 40 minutes. To ensure accurate data collection, researchers utilized advanced equipment and improved methodology. Additionally, they performed sham grounding sessions as controls with the same subjects.

Results: The study analyzed five of the 18 measured parameters: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). The results revealed an immediate decrease in SC during grounding, with subsequent increases observed at ungrounding for all subjects.

RR increased during grounding and maintained its effect even after ungrounding. Additionally, RR variance increased immediately after grounding and then decreased.

BO variance decreased during grounding but significantly increased after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period and persisted after ungrounding.

Strength of Study: The study's strength is MODERATE as it employed a double-blind design, reducing biases and enhancing the validity of the results. Researchers utilized state-of-the-art equipment and improved methodology for accurate data collection.

However, the sample size was relatively small, limiting the generalizability of the findings. Additionally, the study only examined short-term effects, warranting further research with larger and more diverse populations to establish more robust conclusions.

Conclusion: The study's findings suggest that 40 minutes of grounding immediately induce changes in various physiological parameters, including skin conductance, blood oxygenation, respiratory rate, pulse rate, and perfusion index. The observed effects warrant further investigation to understand how grounding influences the body's autonomic responses and physiological processes.

Grounding shows promise as a potential method for relaxation, health maintenance, and disease prevention. However, more extensive research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and potential clinical applications of grounding in promoting overall well-being.

Conditions Supported:

  • Skin conductance
  • Blood oxygenation
  • Respiratory rate
  • Pulse rate
  • Perfusion index

 

Oschman, 2007

 

meaning of antioxidant on the dictionary

 

Title: Can Electrons Act as Antioxidants? A Review and Commentary 

Methodology: This review and commentary analyze existing research on earthing or grounding and its potential role in providing free electrons as antioxidants. The review explores studies related to the practice of connecting the human body to the earth's electrical rhythms and its effects on various health aspects, including inflammation and sleep.

Results: The review indicates that earthing or grounding has demonstrated positive effects on normalizing the daily cortisol rhythm and improving sleep. Additionally, studies have reported various benefits, such as reduced pain and inflammation.

The earth's surface contains a continuous supply of free electrons through the global atmospheric electron circuit, which individuals can access through direct contact with the earth.

Conclusion: The review proposes that direct earth contact allows diurnal electrical rhythms and free electrons to flow from the earth to the human body. These electrical rhythms may play a role in setting biological clocks for sleep and activity-regulating hormones.

Furthermore, the free electrons from the earth could potentially act as natural antioxidants, neutralizing harmful free radicals associated with chronic inflammation, a known contributor to many chronic illnesses.

Conditions Supported: 

  • Improved sleep quality
  • Normalization of daily cortisol rhythm
  • Reduced pain
  • Reduced inflammation
  • Relief from chronic inflammation and associated chronic illnesses
  • Enhanced overall well-being through the potential antioxidant effects of free electrons from the earth's surface

 

Teplitz, 2004

 

a man is sleeping close to the alarm

 

Title: The Biologic Effects of Grounding the Human Body During Sleep on Cortisol Levels and Subjective Reporting of Sleep, Pain, and Stress

Methodology: In this pilot study, the researchers aimed to investigate the effects of grounding the human body to the earth during sleep on cortisol levels and subjective measures of sleep, pain, and stress. Twelve subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress participated in the study.

They were grounded to the earth during sleep for 8 weeks using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were conducted to establish baseline cortisol levels, and 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated at 4-hour intervals.

Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6, and participants reported daily on sleep, pain, and stress symptoms throughout the study period.

Results: The study revealed measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles, with significant reductions in cortisol levels during night-time sleep. The 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles of subjects showed a trend toward normalization.

Subjective reporting indicated that symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reduced or eliminated in nearly all participants.

Strength of Study: The study's strength can be considered WEAK due to several factors. Firstly, it employed a systematic approach, using both objective measurements (cortisol levels) and subjective reporting (sleep, pain, and stress symptoms) to assess the effects of grounding during sleep. The study utilized a sample size of 12 subjects, which is small, but sufficient for a pilot study.

However, larger sample sizes in future research could enhance the generalizability of the findings. Moreover, the study focused on a specific group of individuals with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, which narrowed the scope of conditions supported.

Conclusion: Grounding the human body to the earth during sleep, also known as "earthing," was found to reduce night-time cortisol levels and resynchronize cortisol hormone secretion in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. The improvements were particularly evident in females.

Additionally, subjective reporting demonstrated that grounding during sleep improved sleep quality and reduced pain and stress levels in the participants.

Conditions Supported:

  • Sleep Dysfunction
  • Pain
  • Stress (Anxiety, Depression, Irritability)
  • Cortisol Regulation

 

About the Author

Marixie Ann Obsioma is a licensed Medical Technologist who has worked in private and government hospitals, allowing her to engage with patients across a range of diverse medical departments.


She now is now a writer in the health field, writing for other sites in the field such as alcorehab.org, phentermineclinics.net and phenterminecliniclist.com. Marixie is a contributing editor for GroundLuxe. Read more about her on her LinkedIn profile.

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